INFLUENCIA DE LAS PROTEINAS DIETETICAS SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO, LA SOBREVIVENCIA Y EL RENDIMIENTO DE LAS POSTLARVAS DEL CAMARON BLANCO (Penaeus setiferus) Y DEL CAMARON ROSADO (P. duorarum) DEL GOLFO DE MEXICO.

Tomás García, Gabriela Gaxiola, Tsai García, Ruth Pedroza, Luis Soto, Norma López, Carlos Rosas

Resumen


El requerimiento de proteínas dietéticas de las postlarvas del camarón blanco P. setiferus y del camarón rosado, P. duorarum fue determinado a través de su crecimiento, sobrevivencia y rendimiento. Para esto se realizaron dos experimentos, en los cuales se empleó la misma serie de dietas purificadas isocalóricas. Los niveles de inclusión de las proteínas fueron 40, 50, 60 y 65%, usándose la caseina como fuente proteica. En ambos experimentos fueron empleadas postlarvas de 10 días de edad (Pl10), obtenidas a partir de desoves logrados en el laboratorio. Los pesos húmedos iniciales promedio de las postlarvas fueron: 1.7 ± 0.12 mg para P. setiferus y 0.6 ± 0.04 mg para Pduorarum. La ración diaria del alimento fue provista en exceso y osciló del 120% de la biomasa al inicio hasta 100% de la biomasa, al finalizar los experimentos. El tamaño de partícula del alimento fue de 250-350 m , al inicio, el cual se incrementó a 870 m , en el transcurso de los experimentos. El experimento de las postlarvas de P. setiferus duró 20 días, mientras que el de P. duorarum fue de 22días de duración.

Las mejores tasas de crecimiento (TIC) de las postlarvas de P. setiferus (13.08 ± 0.26 % mg/día) y de P. duorarum (14.28 ± 0.27 % mg/día) fueron obtenidas con la dieta con 50% de proteína. Con respecto a la sobrevivencia, los porcentajes más elevados se alcanzaron con 50% de proteínas (97 y 92%, para P. setiferus y P. duorarum, respectivamente), aunque éstos no fueron significativamente diferentes de los obtenidos con 40% de proteínas, tanto para P. setiferus, como para P. duorarum (p>0.05). En cuanto el rendimiento (IIRB) estimado para estas dos especies, los máximos valores también se obtuvieron con la dieta que contenía 50% de proteínas. De estos resultados se puede concluir que el requerimiento proteico de las postlarvas de P. setiferus y P. duorarum es 50% de proteínas, a pesar de las evidencias aportadas por los estudios sobre los hábitos alimenticios de estas dos especies, que han consignado diferencias importantes en cuanto a la proporción animal/vegetal de su dieta.

 

Dietary protein requirement were determined in posltlarvae of the white shrimp Penaeus setiferus and the pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum through their growth, survival and yield. For this purpose two experiments were performed using the same series of purified isocaloric diets in which the protein inclusion levels were 40, 50, 60 and 65%. Caesin was the protein source, and arginine was added to improve the aminoacid balance of the diets, using the tail muscular protein, like the pattern of comparison Ten days old (Pl10) postlarve, obtained from laboratory spawns, were used in both experiments. The initial mean wet weight in posltarvae was 1.7 ± 0.12 mg for Penaeus setiferus and 0.6 mg ± 0.04 mg for P. duorarum. Daily food ration was provided in excess and varied from 120% of the biomass at the beginning to 100% at the end of each experiment. The food particle size oscilated from 250-350 m at the beginning and was increased to 350-870 m during the experimental course. The P. setiferus postlarvae experiment lasted 20 days, while the one with P. duorarum was 22 days long.

The best isntantaneous growth rate (IGR) in P. setiferus (13.55 % mg/day) and P. duorarum (14.5% mg/day) postlarvae were obtained with 50% of protein. With respect to survival, the significantly highest percentages were also reached for both species with 50% of protein (97 and 92% for P. setiferus and P. duorarum respectively), though these were not significantly different for those obtained with 40% of protein (p> 0.05) for both species. Conerning the yield estimated for the two species (RIBI) the highest values were also obtained with 50% of protein. In spite of the different food habits reported for the two penaeid species, all these results indicated that the posltarvae of P. setiferus and P. duorarum have the same protein requirement and is of 50%.


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