Futuro de las vacunas ADN frente a virus en Acuicultura

Nereida Jiménez, Julio Coll, Amparo Estepa, Carolina Tafalla

Resumen


Las enfermedades infectocontagiosas de origen vírico son uno de los problemas con mayor impacto en el desarrollo de la acuicultura, ya que generalmente provocan unas altas mortalidades y frente a ellas no existen tratamientos efectivos ni vacunas. La vacunación sería el método más eficaz para controlar el impacto de estas enfermedades, sin embargo, para muchos de los virus más devastadores, las vacunas tradicionales (vacunas atenuadas, muertas) o la vacunación con antígenos virales han resultado ineficaces. Dentro de este contexto, la vacunación genética (vacunas ADN), representa en estos momentos la opción más viable. Desde hace unos años, se viene experimentando con las vacunas ADN para muchos de estos patógenos, con resultados positivos. La mayor parte de las vacunas ADN desarrolladas en el ámbito de la piscicultura son frente a rabdovirus, los virus de peces con mayor repercusión en la acuicultura continental, y entre los que se encuentran el virus de la necrosis hematopoyética infecciosa (IHNV) y el virus de la septicemia hemorrágica viral (VHSV). Sin embargo, hasta que no se resuelvan algunos problemas asociados con estas vacunas ADN, como son los aspectos relacionados con la seguridad y/o rentabilidad económica, éstas no estarán disponibles para el sector. En este trabajo, se revisa el estado actual de la investigación en vacunas ADN para virus de peces, así como de los problemas que tendrán que ser resueltos para conseguir su comercialización.


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Referencias


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