Parámetros Morfométricos de Interés Comercial en Trucha Arcoiris Triploide, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Luis A. Pérez Carrasco, David J. Penman, Niall Bromage


Ejemplares triploides de trucha arcoiris fueron producidos mediante la aplicación de un choque
térmico de 13 min de duración y 27 °C de temperatura a una mezcla de huevas procedentes de tres hembras maduras. El choque térmico se administró 11 min después de la fertilización. Los peces del grupo tratamiento (triploides) y sus hermanos del grupo control (diploides) fueron criados separadamente bajo condiciones similares de densidad, alimentación y calidad de agua. Se registraron varios parámetros morfométricos (longitud caudal, peso corporal, peso de la canal eviscerada, peso gonadal, peso de la pituitaria y peso hepático) a lo largo de un período experimental de 44 meses durante el que se realizaron cinco muestreos.
El análisis de la ploidía mediante la medición del tamaño nuclear a los 5 meses post-eclosión reveló la presencia de un 46% de individuos triploides en el grupo tratamiento. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos triploide y diploide, mantenidas en forma consistente, a lo largo del período experimental en cuanto a proporción de sexos, peso corporal o factores de condición. Sin embargo, a los 20 y 44 meses post-eclosión el peso promedio de la canal eviscerada fue un 20% (p<0.05) más elevado en los individuos del grupo triploide que en sus homólogos diploides. La inducción de triploidía suprimió la maduración sexual en las hembras. Si bien el peso gonadal fue similar entre los machos triploides y los diploides, las hembras triploides mostraron pesos e índices gonadales muy reducidos (Indice Gonado-Somático máximo, IGS= 0.03%, a los 44 meses). Se discuten la importancia comercial de éstos resultados y la utilidad de la inducción de triploidía en la producción de trucha arcoiris de tamaño grande (superior a 1.5 kg de peso), así como en el control de la maduración sexual y en la mejora del rendimiento en el cultivo de ésta especie.


Triploid rainbow trout were produced by a 13-minute, 27° C heat shock applied to pooled eggs
collected from three mature females 11 minutes post-fertilisation. Treated (triploid) and control
(diploid) siblings were raised separately at similar density, feeding and water quality conditions, and several morphometric parameters (fork length and the weight of the body, eviscerated carcass, gonads, pituitary and liver) were recorded at five sampling times over a 44- month period. Ploidy determination by measurement of nuclear size at 5 months post-hatching revealed that 46% of the individuals analysed in the treated group were triploid. No significant differences in sex ratios, body weight or condition factors were consistently observed between the triploid and diploid groups throughout the experimental period; however the weight of the eviscerated carcass was on average 20% higher (p<0.05) in triploid fish compared to diploid fish at 20 and 44 months post-hatching. Triploidy induction resulted in the suppression of sexual maturation in females. Gonadal weight was in general similar between triploid and control males, whereas triploid females had very low gonadal weight and gonado-somatic indices (maximum gonado-somatic index= 0.03% at 44 months of age). The commercial relevance of these results and the possible applications of triploidy induction for the production of large (over 1.5 kg of body weight) rainbow trout and/or the reproductive containment of farmed stocks are discussed.

Texto completo:



Aliah, R.S.; Yamaoka, K.; Inada, Y.; Taniguchi, N. (1990) Effects of triploidy on tissue structure of some organs in ayu. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 56: 569-575)

Benfey, T.J.; Bosa, P.G.; Richardson, N.L.; Donaldson, E.M. (1988) Effectiveness of a commercial-scale pressure shocking device for producing triploid salmonids. Aquacultural Engineering, 7: 147-154.

Biron, M.; Benfey, T.J. (1994) Cortisol, glucose and hematocrit changes during acute stress, cohort sampling, and the diel cycle in diploid and triploid brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis

Mitchill). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 13: 153-160.

Breton, B.; Sambroni, E. (1996) Steroid activation of the brain-pituitary complex gonadotropic function in the triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). General and comparative Endocrinology, 101: 155-164.

Carrasco, L.A.P.; Doroshov, S.; Penman, D.; Bromage, N. (1998) A long-term, quantitative analysis of gametogenesis in autotriploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of

Reproduction and Fertility, 113: 197-210.

Carter, C.G.; McCarthy, I.D.; Houlihan, D.F. (1994) Food consumption, feeding behavior and growth of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.; parr. (1994) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72: 609-617.

Chourrout, D. (1980) Thermal induction of diploid gynogenesis and triploidy in the eggs of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Reproduction, Nutrition, Développement, 20: 727- 733.

Chourrout, D. (1984) Pressure-induced retention of second polar body and suppression of first cleavage in rainbow trout: production of all-triploids, all-tetraploids, and heterozygous and homozygous diploid gynogenetics. Aquaculture, 36: 111-126)

Devlin, R.H.; Yesaki, T.Y.; Biagi, C.A.; Swanson, P.; Chan, W.K.; Donaldson, E.M. (1994) Extraordinary salmon growth. Nature, 371: 209-210)

Díaz, N.F.; Iturra, P.; Veloso, A.; Estay, F.; Colihueque, N. (1993) Physiological factors affecting triploid production in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 114: 33-40.

Ehira, S.; Maruoka, A. (1991) Quality preservability of triploid freshwater fish. Freshness deterioration, lipid oxidation and protein denaturation during iced storage. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 2: 1-14) (In Japanese with English abstract).

Galbreath, P.F.; Thorgaard, G.H. (1995) Saltwater performance of all-female triploid Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture, 138: 77-85.

Greenlee, A.R.; Kersten, C.A.; Cloud, J.G. (1995) Effects of triploidy on rainbow trout myogenesis in vitro. Journal of Fish Biology, 46: 381-388.

Guo, X.; Hershberger, W.K.; Myers, J.M. (1990) Growth and survival of intrastrain and interstrain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) triploids. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 21: 250-256.

Habicht, C.; Seeb, J.E.; Gates, R.B.; Brock, I.R.; Olito, C.A. (1994) Triploid coho salmon outperform diploid and triploid hybrids between coho salmon and chinook salmon during their

first year. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51: 31-37)

Happe, A.; Quillet, E.; Chevassus, B. (1988) Early life history of triploid rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Aquaculture, 71: 107-118.

Hussain, M.G. (1996) Advances in chromosome engineering research in fish: review of methods, achievements and applications. Asian Fisheries Science, 9: 45-60.

Ihssen, P.E.; McKay, L.R.; McMillan, I. (1991) Growth and survival of triploid rainbow trout. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, 3: 13-15.

Johnstone, R. (1995) Experience with salmonid sex reversal and triploidisation technologies in the United Kingdom. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, 96: 9-13.

Kavumparath, S.; Pandian, T.J. (1992) Effects of induced triploidy on aggressive display in the fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 23: 281-290.

Kitamura, S.; Ogata, H.; Onozato, H. (1991) Triploid male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou shows normal courtship behavior. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57: 2157.

Konishi, Y.; Onozato, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Fujimori, K. (1991) Glycogenosomes in hepatocytes of diploid and triploid masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou), mimicking cytology of glycogen storage disease type II. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 55: 1147-1149.

Krueger, R.; Kohlmann, K. (1993) Histological comparison of liver and kidney tissue of diploid and triploid female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Proceedings of the European

Aquaculture Society, 19: 236) M. Carrillo, L. Dahle, J. Morales, P. Sorgeloos, N. Svennevig, J. Wyban, editors. Oostende, Belgium.

La Patra, S.E.; Parsons, J.E.; Jones, G.R.; McRoberts, W.O. (1993) Early life history and susceptibility of brook trout, coho salmon, rainbow trout, and their reciprocal hybrids to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 5: 270-274)

Leitritz, E.; Lewis, R.C. (1980) Trout and salmon culture (hatchery methods). California Fish Bulletin n° 164) Publications of the Division of Agriculture and Natural Sciences of the University of California. Oakland, California, U.S.A. (197 pp.)

Lincoln, R.F. (1989) Triploidy induction in the rainbow trout using hydrostatic pressure. American Fishes and U.S. Trout News, 8: 8-11.

Lincoln, R.F.; Scott, A.P. (1984) Sexual maturation in triploid rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology, 25: 385-392.

Lou, Y.D.; Purdom, C.E. (1984) Polyploidy induced by hidrostatic pressure in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology, 25: 345-351.

McCarthy, I.D.; Carter, C.G.; Houlihan, D.F.; Johnstone, R.; Mitchell, A.I. (1996) The Performance of all-female diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon smolts on transfer together to sea

water. Journal of Fish Biology, 48: 545-548.

Myers, J.M. (1991) Triploid incubation and growth performance: a comparison of meiotic and interploid triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) inter- and intrastrain crosses. Dissertation Abstracts International, Part B, Sciences and Engineering, 51: 151.

Myers, J.M.; Hershberger, W.K. (1991) Early growth and survival of heat-shocked and tetraploid-derived triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 96: 97-107.

Oliva-Teles, A.; Kaushik, S.J. (1987) Metabolic utilization of diets by polyploid rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 88A: 45-47.

Oliva-Teles, A.; Kaushik, S.J. (1990) Effect of temperature on utilization of endogenous reserves during embryonic development of diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.). Aquaculture, 84: 373-382.

Scheerer, P.D.; Thorgaard, G.H. (1983) Increased survival in salmonid hybrids by induced triploidy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40: 2040-2044.

Scheerer, P.D.; Thorgaard, G.H. (1987) Performance and developmental stability of triploid tiger trout (brown trout female x brook trout male). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 116: 92-97.

Simon, D.C.; Scalet, C.G.; Dillon, J.C. (1993) Field performance of triploid and diploid rainbow trout in South Dakota ponds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 13: 134-140.

Small, S.A.; Benfey, T.J. (1987) Cell size in triploid salmon. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 241: 339-342.

Stillwell, E.J.; Benfey, T.J. (1996) The swimming performance of triploid brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, 96: 41-43.

Sutterlin, A.M.; Holder, J.; Benfey, T.J. (1987) Early survival rates and subsequent morphological abnormalities in landlocked, anadromous and hybrid (landlocked x anadromous) diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture, 64: 157-164.

Swarup, H. (1959) Production of triploidy in Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.). Journal of Genetics, 56: 129-142.

Thorgaard, G.H. (1983) Chromosome set manipulation and sex control in fish. In Fish Physiology vol. IX, Part B, pp. 405-435) W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall, E.M. Donaldson, editors. Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.

Thorgaard, G.H. (1986) Ploidy manipulation and performance. Aquaculture, 57: 57-64.

Thorgaard, G.H. (1991) Integration of chromosome set manipulation and transgenic technologies for fishes. Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biotechnology

Conference, p. 63) W.C. Brown, editor. Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Thorgaard, G.H.; Jazwin, M.E.; Steir, A.R. (1981) Polyploidy induced by heat shock in rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 110: 546-550.

Utter, F.M.; Johnson, O.W.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Rabinovitch, P.S. (1982) Measurement and potential applications of induced triploidy in Pacific salmon. Aquaculture, 35: 125-135.

Virtanen, E.; Forsman, L.; Sundby, A. (1990) Triploidy decreases the aerobic swimming capacity of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 96A: 117-121.

Wattendorf, R.J. (1986) Rapid identification of triploid grass carp with a Coulter counter and channelyzer. Progressive Fish Culturist, 48: 125-132.

Yamazaki, F.; Goodier, J. (1993) Cytogenetic effects of hydrostatic pressure treatment to suppress the first cleavage of salmon embryos. Aquaculture, 110: 51-59.

Zar, J.H. (1996) Biostatistical analysis. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, London, United Kingdom.262 pp.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Copyright (c) 2016 Revista AquaTIC